About Tiruvannamalai District

Tiruvannamalai District also pronounced as Thiruvannamalai is one of the 32 districts in South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, India. In the year 1989, it was formed from non-existing North Arcot District as Tiruvannamalai District. District headquarter is Tiruvannamalai town. It has 11 Taluks Such as, Chengam, Tiruvannamalai, Polur, Thandarampattu, Aarani, Vandavasi, Kalasapakkam, Kilpennathur, Cheyyar, Chetpet, and Vembakkam. According to Indian Census 2011 it had a population of 24, 64,875 with a gender-ratio of 994 females for every 1,000 males. Literacy rate of the district was 79.33%.

History of Tiruvannamalai

Annamalaiyar Temple is plays vital role in the history. Because, the history of Tiruvannamalai District was revolves around the Annamalaiyar Temple. The proper recorded history of the town dates back to the 9th century, because a Chola inscription has been found in this temple. Additional inscriptions made before ninth century point to the reign of Pallava kings, whose headquarter was Kanchipuram.

In 7th century Nayanar saints Appar and Sambandar wrote of the holy place in their poetic work, Tevaram. Sekkizhar, the author of the Periyapuranam records both Appar and Sambandar worshipped Annamalaiyar in the temple. Then, the Chola Kings ruled over the area for more than four centuries, from the year 850 to 1280, and were temple patrons. The inscriptions from the Chola king evidence of different gifts like land, cow, sheep and oil to the temple commemorating various success of the reign.

In the year beginning of 1328 Hoysalas king used Tiruvannamalai as their capital. Here, there are 48 inscriptions from the Sangama Dynasty have been found (1336–1485), two inscriptions from Saluva Dynasty, and 55 inscriptions from Tuluva Dynasty (1491–1570) of the Vijayanagara Empire, reflecting gifts to the temple from their rulers.

There are some other inscriptions from the rule of Krishnadeva Raya (1509–1529), the most powerful Vijayanagara king, showing further patronage. Many of the Vijayanagara inscriptions were written in Tamil language, with some miniscule in Kannada and Sanskrit. The inscriptions in the temple from the Vijayanagara kings shows emphasis on administrative matters and local concerns, which contradicts the inscriptions of the equivalent rulers in other temples like Tirupathi. The most of the gift associated inscriptions are for land donations, followed by goods, cash donations, cows and oil for lighting lamps etc. The city of Tiruvannamalai was at a planned junction during the Vijayanagara Empire, linking holy centers of pilgrimage and army routes. There are some inscriptions that exhibit the region as an urban center before the pre-colonial period, with the city developing around the temple, which is similar to the Nayak ruled cities like Madurai.

In the 17th century, Tiruvannamalai came under the power of the Nawab of the Carnatic. As the Mughal Empire came to an end, the Nawab lost monitor of the town, with mystification and disorder ensuing after 1753. Afterward, there were periods of both Hindu and Muslim stewardship of the temple, with Muraru Raya, Krishna Raya, Mrithis Ali Khan, and Burkat Ullakhan besieging the temple in progression. As European penetrations progressed, Tiruvannamalai was defeated by French Soupries, Sambrinet, and the English Captain Stephen Smith. While some were chased, others were conquering. The French occupied the town in the year 1757 and it came under the power of the British in the year 1760. In the year 1790, Tiruvannamalai town was overwhelmed by Tippu Sultan, who ruled from the year 1750 to 1799. In the first half of the 19th century, the town came under the rule of British Empire.