About Tirunelveli District

Tirunelveli District is one among 32 districts of Tamil Nadu, India. The city of Tirunelveli is the district headquarters. Tirunelveli District was formed in the year 1st September 1790 by the East India Company (on behalf of the British government), and comprised the current Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi districts and parts of Virudhunagar and Ramanathapuram districts. Tirunelveli is the second-largest district (as of October 2008), after Villupuram district. According to the Indian Census 2011, the district had a population of 30, 77,233. Gender-ratio of the district is 1,027 females for every 1,000 males. This district had a literacy rate of the district was 73.88% (As of 2011 Census).

History of Tirunelveli

This district history was researched by Robert Caldwell in the year1814–1891; he is a Christian missionary who visited the area. Tirunelveli was under the regime of Pandya kings as their secondary capital; and Madurai was the primary capital. The Pandya empire in the place dates back to several centuries before the Christian epoch from inscriptions by Ashoka (Dated 304–232 BCE) and describe in the Mahavamsa, the Brihat-Samhita and the writings of Megasthenes (350–290 CE).

After that, this province came under the reign of Cholas under Rajendra Chola I in the year 1064 CE; nevertheless, it is vague whether he overwhelmed the region or obtained it voluntarily. Then, Tirunelveli remained under the control of the Cholas until the early 13th century, when the second Pandya Empire was commenced with Madurai as its primary capital. Here, the Nellaiappar temple was the noble shrine of the later Pandyas during the 13th and 14th centuries, and the city benefited from dams constructed with royal patronage during the period. After the death of Kulasekara Pandian (1268–1308), this territory was occupied by Vijayanagara rulers and Marava chieftains (Palayakarars, or poligars) in the 16th century. The Maravars got the western foothills and the Telugas, and the Kannadiga settled in the black-soil-rich eastern portion.

Tirunelveli was the secondary capital of the Madurai Nayaks; under Viswanatha Nayak in the year 1529–64, the city was reconstructed in the year 1560. Here, an inscription from the Nellaiappar temple shows charitable contributions to the temple. Nayak reign ended in the year 1736, and the region was overwhelmed by Chanda Sahib and ruled in the year 1740 to 1754, Arcot Nawab and Muhammed Yusuf Khan (1725–1764) during the mid-18th century. In the year 1743 Nizam-ul-mulk, lieutenant of the Deccan Plateau, deposed and displaced most of the Marathas from the province and Tirunelveli came under the rule of the Nawabs of Arcot. But, the original power lay in the hands of the poligars, who were originally army chiefs of the Nayaks. The city was the main commercial town during the Nawab and Nayak epoch. The city was called as Nellai Cheemai; Cheemai means "a developed foreign town".

After that, the poligars construct forts in the hills, had 30,000 troops and waged war among them. In the year 1755, the British government sent a mission under Major Heron and Mahfuz Khan which restored some order and conceded the city to Mahfuz Khan. The poligars waged war against Mahfuz Khan seven miles from Tirunelveli, but were overwhelmed. This failure of Mahfuz Khan led the East India Company to send Muhammed Yusuf for assistance. Khan became ruler, rebelled in the year 1763 and was hanged in 1764. In the year 1758, British troops under Colonel Fullarton decreased the poligars stronghold under Veerapandiya Kattabomman.

Next, in the year 1797, the first Poligar war ruined out between the British (under Major Bannerman) and the poligars (headed by Kattabomman). Some poligars (such as the head of Ettaiyapuram) aided the British; Kattabomman was overwhelmed and hanged in his home territory of Panchalaguruchi. Then, two years later, another rebellion became called as the Second Poligar War. Panchalaguruchi fell to the British, after rigid resistance. The Carnatic region came under British reign following a treaty with the Nawab of Carnatic.

After capturing Tirunelveli from the Nawab of Arcot in 1801, the British anglicized its name to "Tinnevelly" and made it the headquarters of Tinnevelly District. The administrative and army headquarters was situated in Palayamkottai (Palayamkottai is anglicized as "Palankottah"), from which attacks against the poligars were launched. After independence both cities converted to their original names, and Tirunelveli remained the capital of Tirunelveli district. A separate Thoothukudi district was dividing off in the year 1986 and now 30 April 2015 by BJP government it's known to be said as the one of the 100 smart cities of India. So, the Tirunelveli is not only famous for history, also popular for foods, culture, architecture, arts, braveness etc.