About Madurai district

Madurai district is second biggest in population thirty-two districts of the state of Tamil Nadu, in southeastern India. Madurai city is the capital of Madurai. It is one of the ancient cities in the world. It houses the world renowned Sri Meenakshi Sundareswarar temple and is located on the banks of the river Vaigai. Thiruparankundram is one of the major tourist places in the district. According to 2011 census, population of the district was 30, 38,252 with a gender-ratio of 990 females for every 1,000 males. The largest towns of Madurai are Melur, Avaniapuram, Thirumangalam and Usilampatti. The average literacy rate of the city was 81.95% and average literacy rate of the district is 74.83% (2011 Indian Census). Madurai is well connected by Air, Road, and railway. Madurai International airport is situated 12 KMs away from the city.

History of Madurai

It is described in legend that Madurai was formerly a forest called as Kadambavanam. One day, a farmer named Dhananjaya who was transient through the jungle, saw Indra (The king of the gods), worshipping a Swayambu (self shaped Lingam) under Kadamba tree. Dhananjaya, the farmer instantly report the information to King Kulasekara Pandyas. Kulasekara Pandyas cleaned the forest and construct a temple around the Lingam. A city was almost immediately designed with the temple as its centre. Immediately the city was to be named, Lord Shiva is said to have emerged and drops of nectar from his hairs chop on the town. So, that is a main reason the place was named Madurai - Mathuram which means ‘sweetness’ in Tamil.

Madurai has a wealthy historical backdrop in the logic that Lord Shiva himself performed sixty-four admirations called "Thiruvilaiyadals". In early 3rd century BC, Mega thanes visited Madurai. After that large number of people from Rome and Greece visited Madurai and commenced the trade with the Pandyas kings. Then, Madurai flourished till 10th century A.D when it was overwhelmed by Cholas the arch rivals of the Pandyas. The Cholas Empire ruled Madurai from 920 AD till the opening of the 13th century. In the year 1223 AD Pandyas recovered their kingdom again and become prosperous. The Pandian Kings patronized Tamil language in an immense way. Throughout their period, many masterpieces were created.

"Silapathikaram", the great and exquisite epic in Tamil was written based on the life story of Kannagi who burnt Madurai as a consequence of the unfairness caused to her husband Kovalan. In the year April 1311, Malik Kafur, the universal of Alauddin Khiliji who was then the monarch of Delhi, reached Madurai and attacked and ransacked the city for precious and cherished jewels, stones, and other rare resources. It leads to the consequent raids by other Muslim Sultans. In the year 1323, the Pandyas kingdom together with Madurai became a state of the Delhi Empire, under the Tughlaks.

In the year 1371, the Vijayanagar Empire of Hampi overwhelmed Madurai and Madurai became division of the Vijayanagar Empire. Kings of this Empire were in custom of exit the captured land to governors called Nayaks. This was done for the proficient management of their Empire. Here, the Nayaks paid flat amount yearly to the Vijayanagar Empire. After the fatality of Krishna Deva Raya (King of Vijayanagar Empire) in the year 1530 AD, the Nayaks became freelance and ruled the regions under their power. Among Nayaks, Thirumalai Nayak (1623-1659) was very famous; even now he is well-liked among people, as, it was he who given to the creation of many wonderful structures in and around Madurai. Then, the Raja Gopuram of the Meenakshi Amman Temple, The Pudu Mandapam and The Thirumalai Nayakar's Palace are existing gravestones to his creative dedication.

Next, Madurai commenced falling into the hands of the British's East India Company. In the year 1781, British have chosen their representatives to look after Madurai. Here, George Procter was the initial collector of Madurai. Now, after India's independence, Madurai is one of the main districts of TamilNadu State. In the year 1984, the Vast Madurai district was splitted into two districts namely Madurai and Dindigul Districts. Afterward in 1997, Madurai district was again splitted into two districts namely Madurai and Theni Districts. In Madurai District, there are 10 State Assembly constituencies and two parliament constituency.

Madurai is bounded by numerous mountains and Madurai city has 3 hills as its city boundary. Yanaimalai, Pasumalai, Nagamalai named after Elephant, Cow, and Snake respectively. Madurai is very famous for Jasmine Flowers all over the globe. Jasmine flowers are transported to other cities of India from Madurai. So, the Madurai has a rich culture, history, architecture etc.